A Supplement to Clarke's Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica
by Peter David Fraser
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License.
Probably Culex pipiens, the northern house mosquito. Found throughout the northern hemisphere, often near human habitation.
The most common mosquito in New Zealand
The whole insect is tinctured in alcohol and diluted and succussed to higher potencies.
Culex musca was proved by Kent but only a minimal entry is found in the Dictionary. The insect proved by Kent was probably Culex pipiens, the common house mosquito found in North America. A further proving was made by Dr Nandita Shah, Dr Sunil Anand and Dr Jayesh Shah in Mumbai. This is referred to as Culex musca but as some pharmacopoeias specify Anapheles fluviatis, the transmitter of Malaria, it may have been this species that was used. A further proving of the common New Zealand mosquito, Culex pervigilans, was conducted by Alastair Gray in Sydney in 2002. The provings gave very similar pictures and there does not seem to be enough difference between them to keep the entries separate. However, in the schema symptoms are indicated by (K) for the Kent proving (M) for the Mumbai proving and (S) for the Sydney proving.
The mosquito is a pest throughout the world and a vector for many diseases including: Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Eastern and Western Equine Encephlitides, La Crosse and St Louis Encephalitides and Dog Heartworm. The most notable mosquito borne disease is Malaria which is caused by the Plasmodium protozoa whose life cycle involves asexual reproduction in a host, which can be a mammal, a bird, a reptile or a human depending on the species of Plasmodium, and sexual reproduction in a species of Anopheles mosquitoes. The protozoa infest red blood cells bursting them to release the merozoites, daughter cells, and toxins and causing the malarial fever, which results in more than a million human deaths each year.
The bite of the mosquito involves the injection of salivary fluids that cause swelling and irritation.
The mosquito lays eggs that float on standing water, some species lay them individually, while others lay them linked in rafts. The eggs hatch into larvae after about 48 hours. The larvae, called wrigglers, live in the water feeding on micro-organisms and organic matter. The larvae come to the surface to breathe, often through a snorkel like breathing tube. They moult four times, the fourth instar becoming a pupa. Although the pupae do not feed they are unusual in that they are highly mobile and respond to light and threat by flipping their tales and tumbling, they are known as tumblers, into safer places and later floating to the surface again. After metamorphosis in the pupa the adult emerges and, after drying, takes to the air. Mosquitoes generally feed on nectar but the female requires a single, high protein blood meal in order for her eggs to develop. Mosquitoes tend to be crepuscular feeders, most active at twilight. Females emerging in late summer find a sheltered place after mating and hibernate over the winter emerging in the spring to lay their eggs. The life cycle of mosquitoes varies from 4 to 30 days depending on species and on temperature. Mosquitoes have four wings similar to the other Diptera but there are scales on them. The buzzing sound comes fro the very fast wingbeat which is slightly slower in the female.
There is often some question, particularly with animal remedies, as to whether the remedy represents the feeling of the substance or the effect that it has: the poison or the poisoner, the predator or the prey. The proving of mosquito conducted in Mumbai gives some indication of where the answer lies. In symptoms that were clearly consistent with the general proving picture, prover 4 recorded. "I was traveling by bus, it was very crowded. One lady touched my hair, that is very common, but I told her 'Can't you see?' I spoke rudely to her. The lady told me: 'If you are so fussy you better travel by first class.'" While prover 5 reported: "While traveling by train I happened to touch a lady, she made a face. I got irritated and told her, 'Why don't you travel by first class?'" This satisfying antithesis would seem to indicate that the remedy is about the point where contraries meet and are in conflict, about both sides rather than about either particular side of that conflict.
The feeling that was strongest in all of the provings was one of irritability. This was found generally in the physical symptoms from nose to anus and particularly in the skin symptoms, and almost universally in the mental and emotional symptoms.
Irritability leads to anger and a willingness to quarrel. Even in dreams they are quarrelsome. The anger could be extreme, even rage with a desire to kill and was almost always out of proportion to the offence which was often trivial. The provers felt that they were being taken advantage of, taken for granted or that people were invading their privacy and interfering. There was a strong response, a desire to retaliate and to fight back. Anyone that walked in my path I wanted to push and shove. The provers were rude, quarrelsome, intolerant and censorious. The rudeness and argumentative was worse sometimes at home than when out but it was consistent and widespread. Although there was a sentimental feeling about children; children were particularly irritating and there was a desire to shout at them or worse.
There is strong fear in the remedy. Fear of danger, of murder and of being attacked. That strangers would attack her from behind. There particularly a sexual fear of being attacked and raped. These fears were well represented in the dreams with dreams of war and being bombed of being attacked and of murder and rape. However, more unusual is the feeling of confidence, that she could take on whatever and whoever was after her and deal with them appropriately. She felt she could face anything. She was confident that whatever happened she could handle it herself.
In the dreams there is powerful feeling of having committed a crime, of having murdered someone. The guilty dreams were matched in waking life with a feeling that people looked on them as a criminal or thief.
As well as confidence and assertiveness there was a desire to be seen as the best. Attention to detail and to do things well. She wanted to gain knowledge, though for what it can do rather than for its own sake. She wanted to be the best prover and for everyone to recognize it. This appeared in dreams of being special, being the best, of winning prizes and of being praised. There was one dream of being powerful and killing a lion with a single blow. This sense of being the first and best may lie behind the dreams of the letter A in the Australian proving.
The desire to be seen or recognised as superior was found in a concern for appearance. A desire to be well dressed with the best clothes and the best jewellery. It is alright to be overdressed but one should never be underdressed. There was a desire or need to shop and a tendency to spend too much money. Concern for appearance was also found in worry about the hair which has a tendency to fall out.
In spite of the desire to be the best there is a strong apathy, an inertia and an unwillingness to do things, especially to start new things. Laziness and boredom prevail. As in many insects there is a tendency to exhaustion and particularly physical exhaustion while the mind remains clear and active. This is physically expressed as a heaviness as if they were dragging themselves around and in the eyes which are heavy with eyelids that can barely be kept open. The head and the lower limbs are also particularly heavy.
There is a feeling of detachment and separation. The body and mind feel separate and the person is separated from the world around. There is a desire to be alone that at least ameliorates the irritation caused by people. There is a numbness both emotional and a physical numbness felt in many areas, particularly the tongue and mouth.
There is mental confusion and forgetfulness and many mistakes particularly in writing.
Again as with insects in general there is extreme sensitivity, to sad stories, to the environment and to storms, though it is met more often with selfish irritability than with a desire to help.
Irritability can be discerned throughout the body. The nose in particular suffers from epistaxis, especially on waking, from fluid coryza and from sneezing. The itching is so severe that there is a desire to rub the end of the nose off.
Nausea is severe and pervasive. It is particularly found after eating and at meal times. It is worse for smells and for the thought of food.
Burning pains are found everywhere but are noticeable in the throat, stomach, urinary tract and anus. The dryness and burning in the throat and lungs causes a paroxysmal cough.
The stool requires straining and is incomplete.
Burning and itching is found everywhere on the skin and on the anus and genitals with a desire to scratch. There is a particular eruption that is red, raised and itching and about the size of a quarter.
There is burning heat but also burning cold and numbness. The skin can be cold and clammy.
Sleep is difficult and unrefreshing and many symptoms are worse in the morning, or worse during the day not ameliorating till the evening.
Discharges, saliva and perspiration are all clear and watery but they are also sticky.
Mind and body are separate.
Pressure in temples as from a clamp.
As if the head had no weight.
Sensation of throbbing around brain.
Of a cap.
Tingling in scalp.
As if wind blowing in the eyes.
As if in a cocoon (from blocked ears).
As if a cold wind is blowing on the lips.
Sensation of foreign body in gums.
As if punched (ovaries).
Tightness in chest.
Sensation of draft on back.
As if an iceberg in the body.
< sunrise to bedtime, > after 8
< night (toothache)
> night (headache and nausea)
< sunlight, > closing eyes (headache, sore eyes)
> open air
> when the rains come (storms)
< indoors (sneezing)
< talking or thinking (disconnected sensation in head)
< blowing nose (epistaxis, vertigo)
> warm drinks (throat)
< after eating
> rubbing (stiff neck)
Other insects. Gelsemium (droopy eyelids).
Irritable and angry. (K,M,S) Impatience, willingness to quarrel. (K,M,S) Irritable from hunger. (S) Intolerant. (M,S) Intolerant of crowds. (S) Desire to be alone. (M,S) Feeling that people are intruding into your space. (M,S) Feeling that people are interfering in her life. (M) Feeling that she is taken for granted. (M)
Anger. (M,S) Angry and frustrated. (S) Rage, anger desire to kill, over trifles. (S) Swearing at people. (S) Irritable and angry about trifles. (M) Anger at strong odours, the smell of fish. (S) Taking things the wrong way. (M)
Feeling of superiority. (M) Need to do things well. (M) Concerned about her appearance. (M) Anxious about hair loss. (M) Need to be dressed in the best clothes and the best jewellery. Does not mind being overdressed but must not be underdressed. (M) Need to be the best and to get the most attention. (M) Desire to gain knowledge, to be ready with the answers. (M) Spending money, extravagance, without remorse. (M,S)
Feeling that people are taking advantage of her. (M,S) Nobody is fair to her and she has to fight back. (M,S) Feeling that no one is on her side. (M) Feeling let down. (S) Feeling squashed and trapped. (S)
Assertiveness, fighting back, defending your privacy. (M) Retaliating. (M) Critical and complaining. (M,S) Fighting about trivial matters. (M)
Rude and quarrelsome. (M) Rude at home, but not out with friends. (M) Rude and abrupt about other people's behaviour. (M) Irritated by children, rude and shouting at them. (M)
Confident and assertive. (M,S) Mind clear, able to hold my ground. (S) Mind is clear and responses are precise. (S)
Fear of being raped or attacked but confident of being able to fight back. (M) Awareness of danger but feels that she could face anything. (M) Everything going wrong but confident that she can handle whatever happens. (M)
Sexual perversion. (M) Voyeurism. (M,S) Awareness of dirt and pollution. (M) Feeling of having been poisoned. (K)
Anxiety and fear of death. (K)
Panic, sudden anxiety. (M,S) Fear of being attacked by strangers, from behind. Fear of murder. (M,S) Constant anxiety that something is going to happen. (M)
Profoundly affected by sad stories. (M) Sensitive, vulnerable, getting hurt easily. (M) Crying about small things. (M) Guilt. (M,S) As if she had committed a crime. (M,S) Feeling of guilt, that people think she is stealing. (M) Everything goes wrong. (M)
Poor memory. (K) Confusion of mind, misspelling words, mistakes in writing. (S) Cannot remember names, even closest friends. (S)
Indifference. (K,M,S) Lethargy, disinclination to work. (K) Laziness, aversion to do anything, boredom. (M) Inertia to start anything new. (M) Uninterested in sex. (S) Feeling as if moving in slow motion. (S) Unreactive, can't be bothered. (S) Feel calm, as if sedated. (S) Numbness. (S) Detachment and vagueness. (S)
Sense that mind and body are separate. (S) Extreme prostration physically but alert mentally. (M) Alert and energetic in spite of less food and sleep. (M)
Duty to go to work in spite of pain. (S) Focussed on business. (S)
Laughing about silly things. (M) Loquacity. (S) Creative, desire to draw pictures. (M)
Sensitive to storms, > when the rains come. (S)
Heaviness. (S) Heaviness > open air. (S) Head feels hard to move. (S) Tightness around head and in forehead. (S) Head feels stuffed. (K) Pressing sensation, as of a cap. (S) Throbbing headache above right eye, with nausea. (M) Neuralgic pain, above right eye. (M) Pressure on vertex with throbbing. (S) Sensation of throbbing around brain. (S) Crushing pain on vertex. (S) Frontal headache, < light, > closing eyes. (S) Headache with nausea (S) > night. (M) Headache, < motion. (K) Aching above the eyes. (S) Pressure across bridge of nose. (S) Pressure in temples as from a clamp. (S) Bursting headache, < afternoon, > cold on forehead. (M)
Itching and stinging of the scalp. (K) Tingling sensation in scalp. (S) Soreness, sensitive to pressure. (S) Falling of hair. (M)
Light sensation as if the head had no weight. (S) Disconnected sensation in head, form sunrise to bed, < talking or thinking. (S)
Intense vertigo. (K) Dizziness with pressure in forehead or on vertex. (S) Dizziness, < moving eyes from one thing to another. (S)
Heaviness and drooping. (K,M,S) Heaviness with blurring of vision. (M) Need to close eyes. (K,S) Twitching. (S) Photophobia. (S) Inflamation of eyes. (K) Burning pain, < reading and crying. (S) Eyes sore, as if wind blowing in them. (S) Eyes sore, > closing them, < sunlight. (S) Eyeball throbbing. (S) Lids sore and crusted. (K,S) Puffiness and swelling with crusting discharge. (K,S) Difficulty focussing when walking outdoors. (S) Awareness of the colour red. (S) Fascinated by colour white. (M)
Sensation of pressure in ears. (S) Ears blocked, as if in a cocoon. (S) Sudden throbbing pain in left ear, better swallowing. (S) Sensitive to sound of running water. (S) Tinnitus. (S)
Epistaxis on waking. (S) Epistaxis on blowing nose. (K,S) Burning sensation. (S) Watery discharge with bloody crusts. (K) Nose dripping and running with clear discharge. (S) Nose running, right nostril. (M) Coryza. (M) Congestion with thick, stringy mucus, > blowing nose, < heat. (S) Inner nostril swollen and sore. (S) Nose blocked. (M) Itching, stinging and tickling. (K) Nose itches inside and out. (K) Intense itching in nostrils. (S) Itching, < evening. (S) Itching tip of the nose. (M) Itching with sneezing. (S) Twitching with itching sensation. (S) Sneezing. (M,S) Sneezing, < fast fan. (M) Sneezing, < indoors. (S) Sense of smell intense. (S)
Itching. Face flushed and burning. Numbness and tingling of face, cheeks and lips. (S) Lips feel swollen and cold. (S) Irritation and itching of lips. (S) As if a cold wind is blowing on the lips. (S) Lips dry, (S) with constant licking to wet them. (K) Lips dry and burning. (S) Cuts on upper lip. (S) Small, painful, red eruption on face. (M) Cheeks flushed. (K,S) Pressure in sinuses. (S) Glands swollen, as if he was going to have mumps. (K) Tired look. (S) Looking very sick. (M)
Aching, < night. (S) Nerve pain in teeth as if freezing. (S) Sensation of foreign body in gums. (M)
Numbness of tip of the tongue. (K,S) Ulcers on inside of cheek and tongue. (S) Painful eruption on tip of tongue. (S) Taste of blood in mouth. (S) Saliva white and sticky and leaves a bad taste in the mouth. (K) Tongue white, coated and swollen on waking. (K) Excessive salivation. (K)
Throat burning and dry, < right. (K) Sore and raw throat. Swollen, > warm drinks. (S) Hawking to clear throat. (M) Irritation, tickling and itching. (M,S) Irritation as if something in the throat, > coughing. (S) Croaky voice. (S) Hoarseness, so she could barely speak a word. (K)
Ravenous hunger. (S) No interest in food. (S) Appetite decreased (M) Easy satiety. (M) Thirst diminished. (S) Thirst increased. (M) Thirsty for water (S) cold water. (M) Desire for tea (S) and tea ameliorates. (M) Desire for sour things. (M) Desire for green vegetables. (S) Desire for bananas, (S) for mangoes. (M) Desire fried food, fish and chips. (S) Aversion to salmon. (S)
Burning sensation, < sweets. (S) Burning pain, and offensive eructations. (K,S) Belching after eating. (S) Constant nausea and vomiting. (K,M) Nausea < after eating, feel it would be better for vomiting or belching. (M) Nausea at the time of meals. (M) Nausea. Stomach sore, hard and distended, < after eating. (S) Nausea, < strong smells. (S) Nausea, < eating, thought of food, > open air. (K,S) Nausea, > deep breaths, < swallowing. (S) Gagging and retching with inability to vomit. (K) Vomiting sour undigested food. (K,M) Hiccup. (S)
Distension and bloating. (S) Painful distension, > eructations. (M) Tenderness. (S) Pain, right side. (S) Pain in abdomen, comes and goes quickly. (M) Cramping pain during stool. (K) Severe cramping pain in abdomen, > resting and bending, < walking and pressure. (S) Twisting pain in lower left abdomen. (S) Pain in lower abdomen as if stretched. (M) Gurgling and rumbling. (S) Lower bowel feels paralysed. (S)
Feeling as if diarrhoea but nothing there. (S) Bleeding haemorrhoids, > cold. (K,S) Itching and burning of anus. (K) Sensation like a hot stick up rectum. (S) Burning pain after stool. (M) Loose sour smelling stools with pain before and after stool. (M) Straining at stool. (K,M,S) Sudden urgency. (S) Ineffectual urge and incmplete evacuation. (M) Feels constipated. (M,S) Smelly flatus with stool. (K,S) Stool colour of orange clay. (S)
Cutting and burning pain in urinary tract. (S) Cutting sharp pains. (S) Burning pain on micturation. (S) Waking with need to urinate. (S) Urine hot and brownish yellow. (S)
Burning of the glans penis with smelly discharge. (K) Scrotum itching, stinging and burning, < rubbing. (K)
Itching of vulva, feels she could tear it to pieces. (K) Burning pain in vagina. (S) Cramping pain in vagina. (S) Violent pain in uterus. (K) Feeling of weight in uterus. (S) Pain in ovaries, as if punched, stabbing pains, cramping pains. (S) Pain on ovulation. (S) Pulsating sensation in region of ovaries. (S) Pinching pain and soreness in cervix. (S) Itching. Creamy discharge causing soreness and itching. (S) Menses early. (K) Menses painless and without PMT. (S) Menses start and stop suddenly. (S) Menses clotted. (K,S) Aversion to sex, doesn't want to be touched. (S) Strong but not unpleasant sexual odour. (S)
Need to take deep breath. (S) Wheezing, on being woken. (S) Irritating dry cough. (M,S) Dry cough with thick, stringy expectoration, < night. (M) Bends double with cough. (M) Burning in the chest leading to cough. (K) Racking cough ending in a long loud inspiration with blue face and protruding eyes followed by langour and sweat. (K) Constant desire to sneeze and cough. (K) Soreness and fullness in right lung. (K) Anxiety felt in chest. (K)
Pain, < evening. (M) Feeling of tightness and constriction in chest. (S) Digging pain under right breast when bending. (S) Raw bruised feeling in right chest. (K) Congestion. (S) Fluttering in chest. (S) Sensation that everything is blocked in chest and throat. (M)
Sensation of coldness near heart. (S) Palpitations. (S) Feeling the beat of her heart. (S)
Sharp stabbing pain in back, right scapula. (S) Pain right lumber region, shooting down leg. (S) Back feels bruised. (S) Pain over right kidney. (K,S) Boil. (M) Stiffness of neck, left side, > rubbing. (S) Sensation of draft on back. (S) Coldness of back. (S) Desire to have erect posture. (S)
Heaviness. (S) Hands and feet sweaty and clammy. (S) Coldness. (S)
Grating pain in joint of left index finger, > movement, < jar. (S) Prickling pains. (K) Desquamation of palm. (M) Burning of the palms. (K) Feels she could not move her fingers when writing. (M) Hands numb. (K,S) Hands hot and burning as if frozen. (K) Coldness of fingers. (S) Right hand cold, left hand warm. (K)
Cramping pains. (S) Prickling pains. (S) Sudden burning and stinging pain on thigh, > pressure. (S) Pain and weakness in calf muscles. (M) Aching from the knee down. (K) Sharp shooting pain, left shin bone. (S) Restlessness, > open air. (K) Itching rash, scratching till it bleeds. (S) Tiredness and heaviness. (K,S) Oedema, > elevating legs. (S) Tenderness of soles. (K) All symptoms < in a warm room, > open air. (K)
Sharp, darting, stinging pains. (K) Sensation of a foreign body in various parts. (M) Burning pains. Exhaustion. Prostrated as if hadn't slept. (M) Heaviness. Fainting. (S) Sour smelling discharges. (M) Secretions are sticky. (K) Lethargic and sluggish. (M,S) Uncoordinated, bumping into things. (S) Feeling of lightness. (S) Numbness. (S) Small cuts. (S) Heated and flushed, perspiring. (K,M,S) Burning heat. (S) Coldness, as if an iceberg in the body. (S) Frozen to the bone. (S) Muscles loose or relaxed. (S) Muscles tired and sore. (M)
Itching burning eruptions. Tormenting itching, > while scratching, < after. (K) Small red rough patches of skin. (S) Red spots the size of a quarter. (K) Pimples. (S) Small painless red eruptions. (S) Eruprions containing a clear fluid. (K) Red blotchy rash. (S) Stinging, itching pains in spots. (S) Dryness. (S)
Sleepiness. Overwhelming tiredness. (S) Sleepiness with yawning. (S) Sleepiness at 3pm and 7pm. (S) Sleeplessness till 3am. (M) Sleeplessness from heat and restlessness. (K,M) Restlessness. (S) Waking unrefreshed. (S) Difficulty waking. (S) Sleep deep but exhausting. (S) Difficulty falling asleep. (S) Waking early. (S)
Beautiful landscape with beautiful feelings. (M) Dirt and shit all around. (M) Dirty toilets. (M) Snakes, rats, insects. (M,S) Quarrels, fights and of the dead. (K) Of dead grandfather. (M) Of war and being bombed and having to fight. (M,S) Of danger. (M) Being attacked, being raped. (M) That someone is trying to kill her. (M) Tunnels (M,S) Being taken for granted. (M) Scolded by teacher for taking him for granted. (M) Being betrayed by family. (M) Struggling to do things. (M) Guilty dreams, (M,S) of having committed murder by stabbing. (M) Dreams of winning prizes, Of feeling she should always be the best, of being special and of being praised. (M) Dreams of being powerful, of killing a lion. (M) Of the letter A. (S)
Burning hot and sweating. (S) Burning fever. (M) Sweat on scalp and back. (M) Sticky perspiration. (K)
Gray, Alastair, Culex pervigilans, A Homopathic Proving of Mosquito Sydney, 2002 http://www.grayhomeopathy.com/m_research.html
Kent J.T., Culex musca New Provings
Shah, N., Anand, S., Shah, J., Proving of Culex musca, Mosquito.